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How to implement a Query by Form service for a TDBGrid (Views: 103)


Problem/Question/Abstract:

How to implement a Query by Form service for a TDBGrid

Answer:

Here is a Delphi unit for a modal dialog to support Query By Form (QBF) for DbGrid components which receive data from Table components (not Query components). The lack of this as a built-in feature makes it harder for Delphi to compete with more resource-intensive tools like Oracle Forms. This unit is not as powerful as the built-in QBF features of Oracle Forms, but it does fill a significant gap in functionality.

unit Db_QBF;

{This unit provides a basic but effective Query By Form service for database access applications written using Borland Delphi. This unit also provides a similar Sort By Form service.

The Query By Form service displays a modal dialog box with a StringGrid of searchable fields, taken from the calling DbGrid. The user may enter an exact search value for any number of fields, and may use drag and drop to rearrange the sort order of the fields. (Only the fields that contain search values are relevant to the sort.) When the user clicks the dialog's OK button, this unit modifies the calling DbGrid's IndexFieldNames property, applies a search range (of exact values), and refreshes the data. If the user leaves all search values empty, this unit clears the calling DbGrid's IndexFieldNames property, clears the search range, and refreshes the data.

The Sort By Form service works in a similar manner, except that it does not accept search values from the user. The user drags and drops the field sort order, then clicks the OK button. This unit modifies the calling DbGrid's IndexFieldNames property, clears the search range, and refreshes the data.

Create the corresponding dialog form using the New Form action, selecting a Standard Dialog Box. Place a StringGrid on the form (as found in the Additional tab of the component toolbar. Set the StringGrid's Height to 161 and its Width to 305. Finally, replace the new form's .PAS source with this unit.}

interface

uses
  WinTypes, WinProcs, Classes, Graphics, Forms, Controls, Buttons,
  StdCtrls, ExtCtrls, Grids, DBGrids;

{The following two procedures provide the mechanism for accessing the services of this unit. Have a button or menu item on the calling form call one of these procedures, passing the DbGrid as the argument. (Remember to add "uses Db_QBF;" to the calling form's implementation section.). Restriction: The DbGrid must reference a DataSource that, in turn, references a DataSet that is a Table. This unit does not support a DataSet that is a Query, since it has no IndexFieldNames property.}

procedure QueryByForm(grid: TDbGrid);
procedure SortByForm(grid: TDbGrid);

type
  TdlgQBF = class(TForm)
    OKBtn: TBitBtn;
    CancelBtn: TBitBtn;
    HelpBtn: TBitBtn;
    gridQBF: TStringGrid;
    procedure OKBtnClick(Sender: TObject);
    procedure CancelBtnClick(Sender: TObject);
  private
    { Private declarations }
  public
    { Public declarations }
  end;

var
  dlgQBF: TdlgQBF;

implementation

uses
  Dialogs, Db, DbTables;

{$R *.DFM}

const
  qbfRowHeight = 16;
  qbfColWidth = 150;
  qbfFieldLabel = ' Field ';
  qbfValueLabel = ' Value ';
  qbfQueryCaption = ' Query for Table ';
  qbfSortCaption = ' Sort Order for Table ';
var
  {Remember some things for use by the QBF dialog's OK button}
  CallingGrid: TDbGrid;
  CallingMode: (modeQuery, modeSort);

procedure SetupAndShowForm;
{ Called by the two exported procedures }
var
  i, j, n: integer;
  tbl: TTable;
  f: TField;
begin
  n := CallingGrid.FieldCount;
  if n <= 0 then
  begin
    { Exceptions may be raised instead of showing messages }
    MessageDlg('Db_QBF unit called for a DbGrid without any Fields', mtWarning,
      [mbOK], 0);
  end
  else if CallingGrid.DataSource = nil then
  begin
    MessageDlg('Db_QBF unit called for a DbGrid without a DataSource', mtWarning,
      [mbOK], 0);
  end
  else if CallingGrid.DataSource.DataSet = nil then
  begin
    MessageDlg('Db_QBF unit called for a DbGrid with a DataSource without a DataSet',
      mtWarning, [mbOK], 0);
  end
  else if not (CallingGrid.DataSource.DataSet is TTable) then
  begin
    MessageDlg('Db_QBF unit called for a DbGrid with a DataSource that
                        is not a Table', mtWarning, [mbOK], 0);
  end
  else
    with dlgQBF.gridQBF do
    begin
      {These properties can also be set once at design time}
      DefaultRowHeight := qbfRowHeight;
      Scrollbars := ssVertical;
      ColCount := 2;
      {Even the Sort service needs a dummy second column}
      {These properties must be set at run time}
      RowCount := Succ(n);
      Cells[0, 0] := qbfFieldLabel;
      Options := Options + [goRowMoving];
      tbl := TTable(CallingGrid.DataSource.DataSet);
      if CallingMode = modeQuery then
      begin
        dlgQBF.Caption := qbfQueryCaption + tbl.TableName;
        Cells[1, 0] := qbfValueLabel;
        Options := Options + [goEditing]; { Allow user to enter values }
        DefaultColWidth := qbfColWidth;
      end
      else
      begin
        dlgQBF.Caption := qbfSortCaption + tbl.TableName;
        Cells[1, 0] := ''; {Dummy "value" column to allow fixed "field" column}
        Options := Options - [goEditing]; {User just reorders the rows}
        DefaultColWidth := (2 * qbfColWidth); {Shove aside dummy 2nd column}
      end;
      j := 0; {Actual number of fields shown to user}
      for i := 1 to n do
      begin
        f := CallingGrid.Fields[Pred(i)];
        if f.DataType in [ftBlob, ftBytes, ftGraphic, ftMemo, ftUnknown, ftVarBytes]
          then
          RowCount := Pred(RowCount) {Ignore unsearchable fields}
        else
        begin
          Inc(j);
          Cells[0, j] := f.FieldName;
          Cells[1, j] := ''; {Empty search value}
        end;
      end;
      dlgQBF.HelpBtn.Visible := False; {We haven't implemented Help}
      dlgQBF.ShowModal;
    end;
end;

procedure QueryByForm(Grid: TDbGrid);
begin
  CallingGrid := Grid; {Save for use by OK button}
  CallingMode := modeQuery;
  SetupAndShowForm;
end;

procedure SortByForm(Grid: TDbGrid);
begin
  CallingGrid := Grid; {Save for use by OK button}
  CallingMode := modeSort;
  SetupAndShowForm;
end;

procedure TdlgQBF.CancelBtnClick(Sender: TObject);
begin
  {Just dismiss the dialog, without making changes to the calling grid}
  dlgQBF.Hide;
end;

procedure TdlgQBF.OKBtnClick(Sender: TObject);
var
  flds, sep, val: string;
  i, n, nfld: integer;
begin
  flds := ''; { List of fields separated by ';'}
  sep := ''; { Becomes ';' after the 1st field is appended }
  nfld := 0; { Number of fields in the list }
  with dlgQBF.gridQBF do
  begin
    n := Pred(RowCount);
    if n > 0 then
      for i := 1 to n do
      begin
        val := Cells[1, i]; { The user-entered search value (if any) }
        if (CallingMode = modeSort) or (val < > '') then
        begin
          flds := flds + sep + Cells[0, i];
          sep := ';';
          nfld := Succ(nfld);
        end;
      end;
    with CallingGrid.DataSource.DataSet as TTable do
    begin
      IndexFieldNames := flds;
      if (CallingMode = modeSort) or (flds = '') then
      begin
        CancelRange;
      end
      else
      begin
        SetRangeStart;
        for i := 1 to n do
        begin
          val := Cells[1, i];
          if val <> '' then
          begin
            FieldByName(Cells[0, i]).AsString := val;
          end;
        end;
        SetRangeEnd; {Set range end to match range start}
        for i := 1 to n do
        begin
          val := Cells[1, i];
          if val <> '' then
          begin
            FieldByName(Cells[0, i]).AsString := val;
          end;
        end;
        ApplyRange;
      end;
      Refresh;
    end;
  end;
  dlgQBF.Hide;
end;

end.

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