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256bit keys for strong encryption (Views: 14)


Problem/Question/Abstract:

Understanding what makes a key vulnerable and the pittfalls brought on by brute key searches.

Answer:

The security of any good cryptosystem relies on the key. No matter how large a key, there will be an imposing decrease in security if  it is poorly used by the software. Keys should be measured according to the bits of entropy contained within them, and simple keys should be disallowed. They should contain many different characters, and  have no discernable patterns. Only when these conditions are met will a key withstand dictionary and brute force attacks.

A key's entropy measures the amount of unpredictable bits. Considering users will usually only use alpha-numeric characters, you should only use the minimum number of bits possible to represent that key. Using 8 bits per character means there are 256 different characters available. An attacker knows the user will only use alpha-numeric characters (62 characters, 6 bits), and will not bother testing for the 194 other characters. A practical technique is to convert each character (1 byte) into a 6bit number, and concatenating then next to each other. You could allow only lower case letters and a few numbers and reduce each character to 5bits (32 characters). It is important to demand the user to use passwords that are larger to achieve the same key size. With this said, an 8 character key should not be considered to be 64bits, but in fact 48bits (6bits x 8 characters). Keys with low entropy pose a security threat no matter how well designed the rest of the system is designed.

Short, one-word keys should not be tolerated within a cryptosystem. Even if you optimize entropy, there simply isn't enough key data in a 5 character key to withstand a brute force attack. A 30bit key (6bits x 5 characters) only allows a possibility of a few billion keys, which only takes a few hours to exhaust on a powerful computer. A key of at least 128bits should be required for sesitive data; this ensures a span of a few years before the need arises for a new and longer key. At 6bits per character this means the key should be 22 or more characters long. This may seem large, but
nothing stops you from using phrases. As an example lets look at the phrase "ThE ElevatoR WaS GoinG UP", it is 25 characters long. The key is 150 bits long, but still easy to remember. All keys should be dealt with in this manner. There is no excuse for allowing a user to use an 8 character key and compromising the entire cryptosystem.

A key provides better resistance against algorithmic searches when it contains many different characters. If the key is 22 characters long, but only contains 4 different characters, then it is severely weak. To keep things simple, at least half the characters in a key should be different (22 character key should have at least 11 different characters). More different characters in a key make it harder to statistically predict the next character. Although such an attack is unlikely, there is no room for error. Preventing all known types of attacks and anticipating breaches before-hand is of
utter-most importance no matter how insignificant a risk may seem. A risk is always a risk. It is important to encourage users to have the most different characters they can remember in each key to make algorithmic searches yield no results.

Attackers love patterns, they make key searches and his life much easier. Users seem to think that keys like: "bingobingo" are more secure than those like: "bingo", but the fact is they are only slightly better. Smart attackers know all the tricks users devise to make their keys harder to guess. Using a word twice should be strongly discouraged. Oftentimes users add numbers at the end of the key, to make it less predictable. Unfortunately 80% of the time the number is 123, and the other 20% is 321. For an attacker to test these additional keys, he must also test with 123 added to each key, as well as 321. This means he has to search 3 times as many keys; this only represents a 1.5 bit increase instead of the 18bits 3 characters should offer. Testing keys for patterns can be a very complex obstacle, and will not be discussed in this paper. After obvious patterns have been disallowed it is wise to pass the key through a one-way hash function such as SHA or HAVAL. These functions take an input of data and create an out which has no solvable relationship to the input; for every possible input there is only one output. The output of these hash functions is seemingly random and will effectively disguise any discrete patterns. Eliminating patterns makes it very difficult for an attacker to search for weak keys.

Notes:

I originaly wrote the article above for my website. The source bellow is part of a library in progress cummulating 3 years of research. It's meant to be an example, but if you want to use it in a program, a little bit of credit would be nice.

These key routines have been optimized and re-written a dozen times, I've tried to comment as best I could. The procedure structures may seem odd because I originaly wrote them in C++. The pseudo random number generator comes from an unknown source, and this implementation of haval is a [severe] modification of David Barton's haval.pas found in the DCPcrypt 1.3 component suite. I used context encapsulation so that the procedures wouldn't have to be instantiated in a multi-threaded environment (server maybe?).

Description:

[MutateKey]
Transforms a key into another by expanding and compressing. No previous keys can be determined by the current key, but all the succeeding keys can be. This is usefull for adding entropy to a key (so that there are no shortcuts to brute searches) or for sessions which may need to use multiple session-keys.

[PasswordToKey]
Converts a string with 64 possible characters: 'a'-'z', 'A'-'Z', '0'-'9', '_' and '.' into a 256bit by leaving out 2 bits from every character (64 chars only need 6bits to represent each, instead of 8bits for 256 chars), and then uses MutateKey to add entropy.

[AnanlyzeKey]
Examines a key's entropy by searching for patterns, counting the bits needed per character, evaluation 0/1 (binary) distribution, and derives a summative rating of the key measured in bit-length. (a complete example of this can be found at http://www.geocities.com/drmungkee/software/codebase.html)

//******************* UNIT BEGINS HERE **************************************
unit keyfunc;
interface

type
  key256 = array[0..7] of longword;

  Prng_CTX = record
    r: array[1..97] of real;
    x1, x2, x3: longword;
  end;
  TPrng_CTX = ^Prng_CTX;

  Haval_CTX = record
    lenhi, lenlo: longword;
    Index: longword;
    hash: array[0..7] of longword;
    hashbuffer: array[0..127] of byte;
  end;
  THaval_CTX = ^Haval_CTX;

  KeyStatistics = record
    KeyLength: longword;
    KeySize: longword;
    CharCount: byte;
    CharBits: byte;
    Patterns: longword;
    Differential: longword;
    BruteLength: longword;
    Rating: longword;
  end;
  TKeyStatistics = ^KeyStatistics;

procedure MutateKey(var key: key256);
function PasswordToKey(pass: string): key256;
function AnalyzePassword(pass: string): KeyStatistics;

implementation

const
  BIT_MASK: array[0..7] of byte = (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128);
  HASH_SIZE = 256;
  PrngM1: longword = 259200;
  PrngI1: longword = 7141;
  PrngC1: longword = 54773;
  PrngM2: longword = 134456;
  PrngI2: longword = 8121;
  PrngC2: longword = 28411;
  PrngM3: longword = 243000;
  PrngI3: longword = 4561;
  PrngC3: longword = 51349;

  //***************************************************************************
  //                                  Haval
  //
  //     Derived from David Barton's haval.pas (DCPcrypt 1.3 component suite)
  //
  //***************************************************************************

procedure HavalCompress(ctx: THaval_CTX);

  function rr32(x: longword; c: longint): longword; register; assembler;
  asm
      mov ecx,edx
      ror eax,cl
  end;
  procedure r1(var x7, x6, x5, x4, x3, x2, x1, x0: longword; const w: longword);
  var
    t: longword;
  begin
    t := ((x2) and ((x6) xor (x1)) xor (x5) and (x4) xor (x0) and (x3) xor (x6));
    x7 := rr32(t, 7) + rr32(x7, 11) + w;
  end;
  procedure r2(var x7, x6, x5, x4, x3, x2, x1, x0: longword; const w, c: longword);
  var
    t: longword;
  begin
    t := (x3 and (x4 and (not x0) xor x1 and x2 xor x6 xor x5) xor x1 and (x4 xor x2)
      xor x0 and x2 xor x5);
    x7 := rr32(t, 7) + rr32(x7, 11) + w + c;
  end;
  procedure r3(var x7, x6, x5, x4, x3, x2, x1, x0: longword; const w, c: longword);
  var
    t: longword;
  begin
    t := ((x4) and ((x1) and (x3) xor (x2) xor (x5)) xor (x1) and (x0) xor (x3) and
      (x6)
      xor (x5));
    x7 := rr32(t, 7) + rr32(x7, 11) + w + c;
  end;
  procedure r4(var x7, x6, x5, x4, x3, x2, x1, x0: longword; const w, c: longword);
  var
    t: longword;
  begin
    t := (x3 and (x5 and (not x0) xor x2 and (not x1) xor x4 xor x1 xor x6) xor x2
      and (x4 and x0 xor x5 xor x1) xor x0 and x1 xor x6);
    x7 := rr32(t, 7) + rr32(x7, 11) + w + c;
  end;
  procedure r5(var x7, x6, x5, x4, x3, x2, x1, x0: longword; const w, c: longword);
  var
    t: longword;
  begin
    t := (x1 and (x3 and x4 and x6 xor (not x5)) xor x3 and x0 xor x4 and x5
      xor x6 and x2);
    x7 := rr32(t, 7) + rr32(x7, 11) + w + c;
  end;

var
  t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0: longword;
  w: array[0..31] of longword;
begin
  t0 := ctx.hash[0];
  t1 := ctx.hash[1];
  t2 := ctx.hash[2];
  t3 := ctx.hash[3];
  t4 := ctx.hash[4];
  t5 := ctx.hash[5];
  t6 := ctx.hash[6];
  t7 := ctx.hash[7];
  move(ctx.hashbuffer, w, sizeof(w));
  r1(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[0]);
  r1(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[1]);
  r1(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[2]);
  r1(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[3]);
  r1(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[4]);
  r1(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[5]);
  r1(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[6]);
  r1(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[7]);
  r1(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[8]);
  r1(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[9]);
  r1(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[10]);
  r1(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[11]);
  r1(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[12]);
  r1(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[13]);
  r1(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[14]);
  r1(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[15]);
  r1(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[16]);
  r1(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[17]);
  r1(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[18]);
  r1(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[19]);
  r1(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[20]);
  r1(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[21]);
  r1(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[22]);
  r1(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[23]);
  r1(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[24]);
  r1(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[25]);
  r1(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[26]);
  r1(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[27]);
  r1(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[28]);
  r1(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[29]);
  r1(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[30]);
  r1(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[31]);
  r2(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[5], $452821E6);
  r2(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[14], $38D01377);
  r2(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[26], $BE5466CF);
  r2(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[18], $34E90C6C);
  r2(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[11], $C0AC29B7);
  r2(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[28], $C97C50DD);
  r2(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[7], $3F84D5B5);
  r2(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[16], $B5470917);
  r2(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[0], $9216D5D9);
  r2(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[23], $8979FB1B);
  r2(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[20], $D1310BA6);
  r2(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[22], $98DFB5AC);
  r2(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[1], $2FFD72DB);
  r2(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[10], $D01ADFB7);
  r2(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[4], $B8E1AFED);
  r2(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[8], $6A267E96);
  r2(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[30], $BA7C9045);
  r2(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[3], $F12C7F99);
  r2(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[21], $24A19947);
  r2(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[9], $B3916CF7);
  r2(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[17], $0801F2E2);
  r2(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[24], $858EFC16);
  r2(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[29], $636920D8);
  r2(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[6], $71574E69);
  r2(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[19], $A458FEA3);
  r2(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[12], $F4933D7E);
  r2(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[15], $0D95748F);
  r2(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[13], $728EB658);
  r2(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[2], $718BCD58);
  r2(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[25], $82154AEE);
  r2(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[31], $7B54A41D);
  r2(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[27], $C25A59B5);
  r3(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[19], $9C30D539);
  r3(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[9], $2AF26013);
  r3(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[4], $C5D1B023);
  r3(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[20], $286085F0);
  r3(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[28], $CA417918);
  r3(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[17], $B8DB38EF);
  r3(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[8], $8E79DCB0);
  r3(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[22], $603A180E);
  r3(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[29], $6C9E0E8B);
  r3(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[14], $B01E8A3E);
  r3(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[25], $D71577C1);
  r3(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[12], $BD314B27);
  r3(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[24], $78AF2FDA);
  r3(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[30], $55605C60);
  r3(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[16], $E65525F3);
  r3(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[26], $AA55AB94);
  r3(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[31], $57489862);
  r3(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[15], $63E81440);
  r3(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[7], $55CA396A);
  r3(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[3], $2AAB10B6);
  r3(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[1], $B4CC5C34);
  r3(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[0], $1141E8CE);
  r3(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[18], $A15486AF);
  r3(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[27], $7C72E993);
  r3(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[13], $B3EE1411);
  r3(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[6], $636FBC2A);
  r3(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[21], $2BA9C55D);
  r3(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[10], $741831F6);
  r3(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[23], $CE5C3E16);
  r3(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[11], $9B87931E);
  r3(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[5], $AFD6BA33);
  r3(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[2], $6C24CF5C);
  r4(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[24], $7A325381);
  r4(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[4], $28958677);
  r4(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[0], $3B8F4898);
  r4(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[14], $6B4BB9AF);
  r4(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[2], $C4BFE81B);
  r4(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[7], $66282193);
  r4(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[28], $61D809CC);
  r4(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[23], $FB21A991);
  r4(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[26], $487CAC60);
  r4(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[6], $5DEC8032);
  r4(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[30], $EF845D5D);
  r4(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[20], $E98575B1);
  r4(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[18], $DC262302);
  r4(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[25], $EB651B88);
  r4(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[19], $23893E81);
  r4(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[3], $D396ACC5);
  r4(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[22], $0F6D6FF3);
  r4(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[11], $83F44239);
  r4(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[31], $2E0B4482);
  r4(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[21], $A4842004);
  r4(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[8], $69C8F04A);
  r4(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[27], $9E1F9B5E);
  r4(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[12], $21C66842);
  r4(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[9], $F6E96C9A);
  r4(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[1], $670C9C61);
  r4(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[29], $ABD388F0);
  r4(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[5], $6A51A0D2);
  r4(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[15], $D8542F68);
  r4(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[17], $960FA728);
  r4(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[10], $AB5133A3);
  r4(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[16], $6EEF0B6C);
  r4(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[13], $137A3BE4);
  r5(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[27], $BA3BF050);
  r5(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[3], $7EFB2A98);
  r5(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[21], $A1F1651D);
  r5(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[26], $39AF0176);
  r5(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[17], $66CA593E);
  r5(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[11], $82430E88);
  r5(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[20], $8CEE8619);
  r5(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[29], $456F9FB4);
  r5(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[19], $7D84A5C3);
  r5(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[0], $3B8B5EBE);
  r5(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[12], $E06F75D8);
  r5(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[7], $85C12073);
  r5(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[13], $401A449F);
  r5(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[8], $56C16AA6);
  r5(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[31], $4ED3AA62);
  r5(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[10], $363F7706);
  r5(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[5], $1BFEDF72);
  r5(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[9], $429B023D);
  r5(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[14], $37D0D724);
  r5(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[30], $D00A1248);
  r5(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[18], $DB0FEAD3);
  r5(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[6], $49F1C09B);
  r5(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[28], $075372C9);
  r5(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[24], $80991B7B);
  r5(t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, w[2], $25D479D8);
  r5(t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, w[23], $F6E8DEF7);
  r5(t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, w[16], $E3FE501A);
  r5(t4, t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, w[22], $B6794C3B);
  r5(t3, t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, w[4], $976CE0BD);
  r5(t2, t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, w[1], $04C006BA);
  r5(t1, t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, w[25], $C1A94FB6);
  r5(t0, t7, t6, t5, t4, t3, t2, t1, w[15], $409F60C4);
  inc(ctx.hash[0], t0);
  inc(ctx.hash[1], t1);
  inc(ctx.hash[2], t2);
  inc(ctx.hash[3], t3);
  inc(ctx.hash[4], t4);
  inc(ctx.hash[5], t5);
  inc(ctx.hash[6], t6);
  inc(ctx.hash[7], t7);
  fillchar(w, sizeof(w), 0);
  ctx.index := 0;
  fillchar(ctx.hashbuffer, sizeof(ctx.hashbuffer), 0);
end;

procedure HavalUpdateLen(ctx: THaval_CTX; len: longword);
begin
  inc(ctx.lenlo, (len shl 3));
  if ctx.lenlo < (len shl 3) then
    inc(ctx.lenhi);
  inc(ctx.lenhi, len shr 29);
end;

procedure HavalFlush(ctx: THaval_CTX);
begin
  ctx.lenhi := 0;
  ctx.lenlo := 0;
  ctx.index := 0;
  fillchar(ctx.hashbuffer, sizeof(ctx.hashbuffer), 0);
  fillchar(ctx.hash, sizeof(ctx.hash), 0);
end;

procedure HavalInit(ctx: THaval_CTX);
begin
  HavalFlush(ctx);
  ctx.hash[0] := $243F6A88;
  ctx.hash[1] := $85A308D3;
  ctx.hash[2] := $13198A2E;
  ctx.hash[3] := $03707344;
  ctx.hash[4] := $A4093822;
  ctx.hash[5] := $299F31D0;
  ctx.hash[6] := $082EFA98;
  ctx.hash[7] := $EC4E6C89;
end;

procedure HavalUpdate(ctx: THaval_CTX; const Buffer; Size: longint);
var
  p: ^byte;
begin
  HavalUpdateLen(ctx, size);
  p := @buffer;
  while size > 0 do
  begin
    if (sizeof(ctx.hashbuffer) - ctx.index) <= longword(size) then
    begin
      move(p^, ctx.hashbuffer[ctx.index], sizeof(ctx.hashbuffer) - ctx.index);
      dec(size, sizeof(ctx.hashbuffer) - ctx.index);
      inc(p, sizeof(ctx.hashbuffer) - ctx.index);
      HavalCompress(ctx);
    end
    else
    begin
      move(p^, ctx.hashbuffer[ctx.index], size);
      inc(ctx.index, size);
      size := 0;
    end;
  end;
end;

procedure HavalFinal(ctx: THaval_CTX; var digest);
begin
  ctx.hashbuffer[ctx.index] := $80;
  if ctx.index > 118 then
    HavalCompress(ctx);
  ctx.hashbuffer[118] := ((HASH_SIZE and 3) shl 6) or (5 shl 3) or 1;
  ctx.hashbuffer[119] := (HASH_SIZE shr 2) and $FF;
  move(ctx.lenlo, ctx.hashbuffer[120], sizeof(ctx.lenlo));
  move(ctx.lenhi, ctx.hashbuffer[124], sizeof(ctx.lenhi));
  HavalCompress(ctx);
  move(ctx.hash, digest, HASH_SIZE div 8);
  HavalFlush(ctx);
end;

//****************************************************************************
//                         PRNG
//****************************************************************************

procedure PrngInit(ctx: TPrng_CTX; seed: longword);
var
  i: byte;
begin
  ctx.x1 := (seed + PrngC1) mod PrngM1;
  ctx.x1 := (ctx.x1 * PrngI1 + PrngC1) mod PrngM1;
  ctx.x2 := ctx.x1 mod PrngM2;
  ctx.x1 := (ctx.x1 * PrngI1 + PrngC1) mod PrngM1;
  ctx.x3 := ctx.x1 mod PrngM3;
  for i := 1 to 97 do
  begin
    ctx.x1 := (ctx.x1 * PrngI1 + PrngC1) mod PrngM1;
    ctx.x2 := (ctx.x2 * PrngI2 + PrngC2) mod PrngM2;
    ctx.r[i] := (ctx.x1 + ctx.x2 / PrngM2) / PrngM1;
  end;
end;

function Prng(ctx: TPrng_CTX): longword;
var
  i: longword;
begin
  ctx.x1 := (ctx.x1 * PrngI1 + PrngC1) mod PrngM1;
  ctx.x2 := (ctx.x2 * PrngI2 + PrngC2) mod PrngM2;
  ctx.x3 := (ctx.x3 * PrngI3 + PrngC3) mod PrngM3;
  i := 1 + (97 * ctx.x3) div PrngM3;
  Prng := trunc($FFFFFFFF * ctx.r[i]);
  ctx.r[i] := (ctx.x1 + ctx.x2 / PrngM2) / PrngM1;
end;

procedure PrngFlush(ctx: TPrng_CTX);
var
  i: byte;
begin
  ctx.x1 := 0;
  ctx.x2 := 0;
  ctx.x3 := 0;
  for i := 1 to 97 do
    ctx.r[i] := 0;
end;

//****************************************************************************
//                         Key Routines
//****************************************************************************

procedure MutateKey(var key: key256);
var
  i: byte;
  exp_key: array[0..1, 0..7] of longword;
  ran_ctx: Prng_CTX;
  hash_ctx: Haval_CTX;
  temp_key: key256;
begin

  //   ***   [1]feed key as 8 seeds into PRNG to generate 16 longs
  for i := 0 to 7 do
  begin
    PrngInit(@ran_ctx, key[i]); //use key as seed data
    exp_key[0, i] := Prng(@ran_ctx); //expand key
    exp_key[1, i] := not Prng(@ran_ctx); //negate to reduce PRNG relationship
  end;

  //   ***   [2]feed [1] as 64 bytes into Haval
  for i := 0 to 7 do
    temp_key[i] := key[i];

  HavalInit(@hash_ctx);
  HavalUpdate(@hash_ctx, exp_key[0][0], 64); //feed expanded key as data
  HavalFinal(@hash_ctx, key);

  //   ***   [3]xor(^) [2] and [1] to produce the final key
  for i := 0 to 7 do
    key[i] := key[i] xor temp_key[i]; //reduce HASH relationship
end;

function PasswordToKey(pass: string): key256;
var
  i, j: integer;
  temp_chars: array[0..42] of byte;
  key_size: byte;
  temp_key: array[0..31] of byte;
  temp_pos: byte;
  bit_pos: byte;
begin

  //   ***   [1]convert 8bit Chars to 6bit bytes
  for i := 1 to length(pass) do
    case byte(pass[i]) of
      97..122: temp_chars[i] := byte(pass[i]) - 97; //if a..z assign 0-25
      65..90: temp_chars[i] := byte(pass[i]) - 39; //if A..Z assign 26-51
      48..57: temp_chars[i] := byte(pass[i]) + 4; //if 0..9 assign 52-61
      byte('.'): temp_chars[i] := 62; //if . assign 62
      byte('_'): temp_chars[i] := 63; //if _ assign 63
    end;

  key_size := (length(pass) * 6) div 8; //keysize with 6bit chars

  //   ***   [2]append 6bit Chars to each other
  temp_pos := 0; //temp buffer position
  bit_pos := 0; //bit position

  for i := 0 to key_size - 1 do //concatonate 6bit chars together
  begin
    temp_key[i] := 0;
    for j := 0 to 7 do
    begin
      inc(temp_key[i],
        ((temp_chars[temp_pos] and BIT_MASK[bit_pos]) shr bit_pos) shl j);
      inc(bit_pos, 1);
      if bit_pos = 6 then
      begin
        bit_pos := 0;
        inc(temp_pos, 1);
      end;
    end;
  end;

  //   ***   [3]make full 256bit key
  //[EDITED 04/25/01] Sorry about the bug. This was originaly done to the
  //passphrase, but I moved it to the process the key instead and forgot to
  //adjust the length from 43 to 32 bytes.  Just change the lines of step [3].
  //Again, sorry.

  if key_size < 32 then
  begin
    j := 0;
    for i := key_size - 1 to 31 do //fill in empty bytes
    begin
      temp_key[i] := temp_key[j] xor i;
      inc(j, 1);
    end;
  end;

  //   ***   [4]eliminate english language redundancy
  MutateKey(key256(temp_key));
  PasswordToKey := key256(temp_key);
end;

function AnalyzePassword(pass: string): KeyStatistics;
var
  i, j: longword;
  key: array[0..1023] of byte;
  chars: array[0..255] of byte;
  pat_pos, pat_len: longword;
  ones, zeros: longword;
  stat: KeyStatistics;
begin

  //   ***   [1]count keylenght
  stat.KeyLength := length(pass);

  //   ***   [2]copy key to buffer
  for i := 0 to stat.KeyLength - 1 do
    key[i] := byte(pass[i]);

  //   ***   [3]count char repetition
  for i := 0 to 255 do
    chars[i] := 0;
  for i := 0 to stat.KeyLength - 1 do
    inc(chars[key[i]], 1);

  //   ***   [4]count different characters
  stat.CharCount := 0;
  for i := 0 to 255 do
    if chars[i] <> 0 then
      inc(stat.CharCount, 1);

  //   ***   [5]count charbits
  stat.CharBits := 0;
  for i := 0 to 7 do
    if stat.CharCount > BIT_MASK[i] then
      inc(stat.CharBits, 1);

  //   ***   [6]count patterns
  pat_pos := 0;
  pat_len := 0;
  repeat
    i := pat_pos;
    repeat
      if (key[i] = key[pat_pos]) and (i <> pat_pos) then //if match is found
        repeat
          inc(pat_len, 1); //increment pattern size
          inc(i, 1); //move to next char
          inc(pat_pos, 1); //next char in pattern
        until (key[i] <> key[pat_pos]) or (i = stat.KeyLength); //until pattern ends
      inc(i, 1);
    until (i > stat.KeyLength - 1); //until finished searching for this pattern
    inc(pat_pos, 1); //start new pattern with the next char
  until pat_pos > stat.KeyLength; //until all patterns have been searched

  if pat_len = 0 then
    stat.Patterns := 0
  else
    stat.Patterns := (pat_len * 100) div stat.KeyLength;

  //   ***   [7]count bit-differential
  ones := 0;
  zeros := 0;
  for i := 0 to stat.KeyLength - 1 do
    for j := 0 to 7 do
      if (key[i] and BIT_MASK[j]) = 0 then
        inc(zeros, 1)
      else
        inc(ones, 1);

  stat.Differential := (longword(abs(ones - zeros)) * 100) div (stat.KeyLength * 8);

  //   ***   [8]count brutelength
  stat.BruteLength := stat.CharBits * stat.KeyLength;

  //   ***   [9]count keysize
  stat.KeySize := stat.KeyLength * 8;

  //   ***   [10]count rating  :=  BL - ((((pat+dif) /2) /100) *BL)
  stat.Rating := stat.BruteLength -
    ((((stat.Patterns + stat.Differential) div 2) * stat.BruteLength) div 100);

  AnalyzePassword := stat;
end;
end.

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