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Conventions Used in This Book

The following typographical conventions are used in this book:

Plain text

Indicates menu titles, menu options, menu buttons, and keyboard accelerators (such as Alt and Ctrl).


Indicates new terms, function names, method names, class names, event names, package names, layer names, URLs, email addresses, filenames, file extensions, pathnames, and directories. In addition to being italicized in the body text, method and function names are also followed by parentheses, such as setInterval( ).

Constant width

Indicates code samples, movie clip instance names, symbol names, symbol linkage identifiers, frame labels, commands, variables, attributes, properties, parameters, values, objects, XML tags, HTML tags, the contents of files, or the output from commands.

Constant width bold

Shows commands or other text that should be entered literally by the user. It is also used within code examples for emphasis, such as to highlight an important line of code in a larger example.

Constant width italic

Shows text that should be replaced with user-supplied values. It is also used to emphasize variable, property, method, and function names referenced in comments within code examples.


The second color is used to indicate a cross-reference within the text.

This icon signifies a tip, suggestion, or general note.

This icon indicates a warning or caution.

The thermometer icons, found next to each hack, indicate the relative complexity of the hack:

figs/beginner.gif beginner
figs/moderate.gif moderate
figs/expert.gif expert

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